Numerical simulation of cold forging process to investigate folding defect in enclosed dies


  • Payman Abhari Metal Forming Department, Donbass State Engineering Academy, Ukraine



Cold forging, enclosed die, material flow, folding defect, numerical simulation, stress-strain state


In the precision forging industries, improving product quality and reducing product cost are important cases. Enclosed-die forging is one of the precision forging processes. In this paper, the cold forging process in the enclosed dies by using kinematical mechanism to create precision parts is considered. The numerical simulation techniques by using the rigid-plastic finite element method (FEM) as software QForm 2D have been applied to investigate defect as a folding defect in this paper. Based on the finite element simulations, forming characteristics such as deformation patterns (gridlines distortion), distributions of effective strain and stress at several stages of process as single-ended and double-ended with different forming parameters to avoid folding defect in cold forging process have been investigated. The lower die velocity vs. geometric ratio by using this numerical simulation method has been determined.


  1. Santos, A.D., Duarte, J.F., Reis, A., da Rocha, B., Neto, R. and Paiva, R. (2001), The use of finite element simulation for optimization of metal forming and tool design. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 119.152-157.
  2. Liu, G., Zhang. L.B., Hu, X.L., Wang, Z.R., Wang, R.W., Huang, S.D. and Tang, Q.B. (2004), Applications of numerical simulation to the analysis of bulk-forming processes-case studies, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 150, 56-61.
  3. Zhang, G.L., Zhang, S.H., Li, B. and Zhang, H.Q. (2007), Analysis on folding defects of inner grooved copper tubes during ball spin forming, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 184. 393-400.
  4. Giuliano, G. (2007), “Process design of the cold extrusion of a billet using finite element method”, Mater. Des. 28 726–729.
  5. Fu, M.W., Yong, M.S., Tong, K.K. and Danno, A., (2008), Design solution evaluation for metal forming product development, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 38 249–257.
  6. Zhbankov, I.G., Perig, A.V. and Aliieva L.I. (2015), New schemes of forging plates, shafts, Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, DOI: 10.1007/s00170-015-7377-7
  7. Aliieva, L. and Zhbankov, Y. (2015), Radial-direct extrusion with a movable mandrel, Metallurgical and Mining Industry, Dnipropetrovsk, No 11, PР. 175–183.
  8. Aliiev, I., Aliieva, L., Abhari, P. and Goncharuk K. (2015), “Investigation of defect in combined precision extrusion process with multiple ram”, XVI International scientific conference New technologies and achievements in metallurgy, material engineering and production engineering, Series: Monographs, Czestochowa, Poland, No 48, PP. 90–93.
  9. Abhari, P. (2016), Investigation of load on the tools in precision radial extrusion process with multiple ram, XVII International scientific conference «New technologies and achievements in metallurgy, material engineering and production engineering», Series: Monografie, No 56, Częstochowa, Poland, pр. 330–333.
  10. Zhbankov, I.G., Perig, A.V. and Aliieva, L.I. (2016), Calculation of recovery plasticity in multistage hot forging under isothermal conditions, Springer Plus, 5:1881, DOI: 10.1186/s40064-016-3570-x.
  11. Aliieva, L.I., Grudkina, N.S. and Krjuger, K. (2017), Modelirovanie processa radial'no-obratnogo vydavlivanija polyh detalej, Mechanics and Advanced Technologies, No 1 (79), pp. 91-99, DOI:
  12. Abhari, P. (2017), Investigation of fracture moment in radial extrusion process by finite element method, XVIII International scientific conference, “New technologies and achievements in metallurgy, material engineering, production engineering and physics”, Series: Monografie, Częstochowa, Poland, No 68, pp. 97–101.
  13. Abhari, P. and Aliiev, I. (2017), Finite Element Simulation of Flashless Radial Extrusion Process, IOSR, Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), Vol. 14, Issue 4 Ver. III (Jul., Aug., 2017), pp. 79-83, DOI: 10.9790/1684-1404037983,
  14. Abhari, P. (2017), The study of folding defects during the radial-forward extrusion in the enclosed dies, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Vol. 6, Issue 7 July, PP 1746-1749, DOI: 10.21275/ART20175702, v6i7/ART20175702.pdf
  15. Ogorodnikov V.A. (1983), Ocenka deformiruemosti metallov pri obrabotke davleniem, Vyshcha shkola, Kiev, Ukraina.




How to Cite

P. Abhari, “Numerical simulation of cold forging process to investigate folding defect in enclosed dies”, Mech. Adv. Technol., no. 2(80), pp. 71–77, Oct. 2017.



Original study